A 3-axis CNC (Computer Numerical Control) machine is controlled by a computer program that sends instructions to the machine’s controller. The controller then translates these instructions into signals that control the movement of the machine’s three axes – X, Y, and Z.
The CNC machine is typically equipped with motors that move the machine’s cutting tool or spindle along these three axes. The computer program generates a toolpath, which specifies the tool’s movement along the X, Y, and Z axes to create the desired shape in the workpiece.
The controller receives the toolpath instructions from the computer and converts them into electrical signals that drive the motors to move the cutting tool along the designated paths. The controller also monitors the machine’s position, speed, and other parameters to ensure precise control over the tool’s movements.
Overall, a 3-axis CNC machine is controlled by a combination of hardware, software, and electrical signals that work together to create precise movements and shapes in the workpiece.